There’s one part of the Ruby language that has tripped me up on several occasions.
In Ruby, passing an object (i.e. just about everything in Ruby) as an argument to a method gives you a reference to that object. Therefore, changes to the object inside of the method are reflected on the original object.
def return_the_object_id(object) object.object_id end
The best place to start is with a simple example. Ruby objects are assigned
unique object ids. The method above simply returns the object id of the passed
2.3.1 :007 > string = "Hello World!" => "Hello World!" 2.3.1 :008 > string.object_id => 70334666559080 2.3.1 :009 > return_the_object_id(string) => 70334666559080
If we define an object, in this case a string, we can see the object id assigned
to that string by calling
#object_id on that string. Passing the string
#return_the_object_id returns a matching object id, demonstrating that
the object inside of the method matches the string defined outside of the
def modify_array(array) array << "c" end
What happens if we modify an object inside of a method? The above
method takes an array as an argument and then adds an element onto the array.
2.3.1 :002 > test_array = ["a", "b"] => ["a", "b"] 2.3.1 :003 > test_array.object_id => 70334666661200 2.3.1 :004 > modify_array(test_array) => ["a", "b", "c"] 2.3.1 :005 > test_array => ["a", "b", "c"] 2.3.1 :006 > test_array.object_id => 70334666661200
#modify_array shows that the original array will be modified inside
of the method. The object ids show no change indicating that the original
object has been modified.
This same scenario, with both Ruby arrays and hashes, is where I’ve gotten into
trouble. I don’t expect these side effects to happen.
It’s important to
remember that methods that modify an object will also modify that original
object. Since Ruby arrays and hashes are both objects, they will have these side
def assign_array(array) new_array = array new_array.object_id end
2.3.1 :005 > test_array = ["a", "b"] => ["a", "b"] 2.3.1 :006 > test_array.object_id => 70257692546900 2.3.1 :007 > assign_array(test_array) => 70257692546900
Let’s go a little deeper.
In the above method, I initially expect
#assign_array to return a new object id. But
references the original array.
Assigning an object to a new variable does not create a new copy of that object —just another reference.
This can be prevented with a few different methods:
def dup_assign_array(array) new_array = array.dup new_array.object_id end
2.3.1 :002 > test_array = ["a", "b"] => ["a", "b"] 2.3.1 :003 > test_array.object_id => 70158454806140 2.3.1 :004 > dup_assign_array(test_array) => 70158454752000 2.3.1 :005 > return_array = modify_array(test_array.dup) => ["a", "b", "c"] 2.3.1 :006 > test_array => ["a", "b"] 2.3.1 :007 > return_array.object_id => 70158454702900
#dup_assign_array, when assigning the array to new_array, I’ve used the
#dup method. You can see that the object ids change when using
If I then pass the original
#modify_array and call
test_array will not be modified, but a new
will be created with the modification and a new object id.
2.3.1 :008 > test_array.replace("z") => "z" 2.3.1 :009 > test_array => ["z", "b"] 2.3.1 :010 > return_array => ["z", "b", "c"]
It’s important to note that
#dup will create a duplicate copy of an
object, but not any objects referenced by that object.
In the above example,
return_array have two different object
ids, modifying one of the strings in the array will modify that string in the
In this case, the string “a” was changed to “z.” This change was
reflected in both arrays.
#clone is similar to
#dup with some important distinctions. First,
#dup, “any modules that the object has been extended with will not be
copied.”  So,
#dup will not create an exact copy.
2.3.1 :011 > test_array = ["a", "b"] => ["a", "b"] 2.3.1 :012 > test_array.freeze => ["a", "b"] 2.3.1 :013 > modify_array(test_array) RuntimeError: can't modify frozen Array 2.3.1 :014 > test_array.replace("z") => "z" 2.3.1 :015 > test_array => ["z", "b"]
The second difference deals with
#freeze will permanently
prevent an object from being modified. Trying to modify a frozen object raises
However, the objects referenced by the frozen object can
still be modified. When a frozen object is cloned, the cloned object will still
be frozen. A duplicated object will not be frozen.
As a side note, the Ruby documentation for
#freeze indicates that
“objects of the following classes are always frozen: Integer, Float,
Symbol.”I think that this caused some of my initial confusion.
I hope this helps to clear up any confusion regarding how Ruby handles objects
passed as arguments to methods.
Just remember, Ruby is passing objects by
reference, so changes to an object in one place will also be seen in other
places that reference the object.